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伦敦1908奥运会的三个第一
2008-08-04 11:27   来源:中国教育网
 摘要:

The Games of the IV Olympiad*, 1908

The plan was to have the 1908 Games in Rome, but in 1906 Italys notorious volcano Mount Vesuvius erupted, causing so much damage that the Games were moved to London. The 1908 Games were praised for being very well organized - no mean feat given the short two-years notice the organizers had - and it was at these Games that manyOlympic traditions were started, including the use of gold, silver and bronze medals to represent first, second and third place. These were also the first Games to hold an elaborate opening ceremony (previously the Games were opened with a brief speech and not much else), in which the athletes walked in the stadium holding their countrys flag. The stadium itself, White City Stadium, was a first as well – it was the first stadium built especially for the Olympic Games.

The 1908 Games were also the first to be remembered as much for controversy as athletics. To start with, the Swedish and American athletes were put out when the organizers failed to include the two countriesflags in the adornment of the stadium. The Finnish athletes, protesting Russian rule, refused to march under the Russian flag in the opening ceremony. The American athletes refused to bow before the British King. Ireland boycotted the Games entirely, protesting British rule.

The events themselves didnt escape controversy either, and there were many debates over official rulings and final standings. Most famous of these was the marathons contentious finale in which the Italian Dorando Pietri, far in the lead, collapsed from exhaustion near the end, was helped across the finishing line by officials, and is subsequently disqualified because of this help.

Poor Pietri might have won on his own had the length of the course not been lengthened for the 1908 Games. The marathon course, set at the traditional length of 40km (the distance from the town of Marathon to Athens), originally started two kilometers away from Windsor Castle, home of the British Royal Family. However, members of the family requested the race start on the grounds of the castle so that they could have a view of the start. This lengthened the course to 42 km. The planned finishing line, in White City Stadium, was also moved forward so that the race would end just below where King Edward VIII would be seated. This brought the total distance of the race to 42.195 km, which has been the official length of the marathon ever since.

*Youll notice that the Olympic Games are formally numbered using Roman Numerals. In this system, I = 1, V=5 and X=10. So for example, VI = 5+1 = 6, and (a bit trickier) IV = 5-1 = 4. The Beijing Olympics are the Games of the XXIX Olympiad: 10+10+(10-1) = 19. Youll also see that British Kings also use these numbers in their titles, e.g. King Edward VIII. VIII = 5+1+1+1 = 8.

中文见下页

1908年,第四届奥林匹克运动会

1908年奥运会原本定在罗马举办,但是1906年意大利著名的维苏威火山的爆发给当地经济带来重创,以至于罗马不得放弃奥运主办权,而改由伦敦承办。1908年奥运会出色的组织工作为伦敦赢得了极高的赞誉,这不仅仅是因为承办国仅仅只有两年的准备时间,而且还因为这次奥运会开创了许多“奥运会”的传统之先河,其中包括首次向获得冠军、亚军和季军的运动员颁发金、银和铜牌,首届出现精彩的开幕式(以往的奥运会开幕只有一个简短的致辞);开幕式上,运动员们在各自国家的国旗下引导入场并绕场游行,展示他们的风采。而白城体育场本身也创造了一个“第一”,因为它是第一个专门为奥林匹克运动会建造的体育场。

1908年奥运会也是第一届备受运动员争议的奥运会。刚开始,瑞典和美国的运动员就因为主办方没能将这两个国家的国旗悬挂在会场上而退场。接着芬兰运动员因拒绝站在俄帝国的旗帜下入场而拒绝参加开幕式。担任美国旗手的运动员则拒绝向英国国王致敬。而爱尔兰则因反对英国而完全拒绝参加此次奥运会。

竞赛项目本身也没能逃脱这些争议,对于裁判的判定和最后的各国得奖统计表,大家意见纷纷。最引人注目的是意大利的马拉松运动员多拉多? 皮埃特利,刚开始的时候,他步伐轻松,遥遥领先,但是在快接近终点的时候体力耗尽,数次倒在地上,最后被人搀扶着走过终点,并最终因借助他人的力量而被剥夺获金牌的资格。

如果1908年奥运会的马拉松赛的距离没有被延长的话,可怜的皮埃特利可能会赢得他的金牌。传统的马拉松比赛全长40公里(这是从马拉松城到雅典城的距离),而这次的马拉松比赛原本是从距离英国皇室的住所—温莎城堡两公里的地方出发。但是,由于英国王室成员提出要看,大会组织者特地将出发点安排在温莎城堡的草坪前,因此将马拉松跑的距离延长到了42公里。原定设在白城体育场的终点也向前移了一些,这样马拉松比赛的终点线正好位于英国国王爱德华七室的观礼台前。所以,这次马拉松比赛的全程总长达到42.195公里,并此后这个距离成为今日风靡世界的马拉松跑的官方距离。

*你也许会注意到奥林匹克运动会正式使用的数字都是罗马数字。在罗马数字系统中, I = 1, V=5 ,而 X=10。所以举例来说, VI = 5+1 = 6, 而(更为复杂) IV = 5-1 = 4。北京奥运会是第24届奥运会:即 XXIX: 10+10+(10-6) = 24。你还可以看到英国国王也在他们的头衔上使用这些罗马数字,例如爱德华国王八世VIII = 5+1+1+1 = 8。

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